The physics in the clutch system is that that the driver depresses the clutch pedal, engages the gear or changes the gear releases the pedal, when increases the speed. This makes for a smooth transition into the already moving vehicle. The clutch starts by allowing the engine power to be given gradually at the start of a vehicle and interrupts the power without having to grinding gears during gear shifting.
Depressing the clutch allows the engine’s power to be transferred to the transmission and drive wheels. Depressing the clutch ceases the power transfer and lets the engine continue rotating without the urge to move the wheels. Basically the clutch system is comprised of the flywheel, clutch disc, pressure plate, throw-out bearing and linkage while some other hydraulic clutch system uses additional components like a clutch slave and master cylinder.
The flywheel is tied to the engine crankshaft which has teeth around the outer edge and works in conjunction with the starter motor to rotate the engine over at initial startup. The flywheel also balances the engine, it reduces vibrations caused from the engine firing, and it provides a smooth machined friction surface that the clutch can run on
About the clutch disc; this is a steel plate that is made with friction material almost the same with brake friction material. This stands in-between the flywheel and pressure plate. Kept in the center of the disc is a hub that fits over the splined input shaft of the transmission. When the clutch is depressed, the disc is “squeezed” between the flywheel and the pressure plate, and the power from the engine is sent through the hub onto the input shaft of transmission.
This pressure plate looks like a spring loaded clamp with bolts to the flywheel and has a metal cover, heavy release springs, a pressure ring that provides a friction surface for the clutch disc, and a thrust finger(s) for the release bearing and levers.
Then comes the throw-out bearing which is at the center of the clutch operation system. When the clutch pedal is engaged, the throw-out bearing moves toward the flywheel and pushes the pressure plate spring force. This makes the pressure plate to move away from the clutch disc, thus causing an interruption of the power flow from the engine to the transmission system.
The hub and the throw-out bearing slides on a hollow shaft in front of the transmission housing. The clutch fork and joining linkage changes the movement of the clutch pedal to the back and forth movement of the clutch throw-out bearing. The release bearing is moved toward the flywheel by the clutch fork when the clutch is disengaged. As the bearing makes contact with the pressure plate’s release fingers, it begins to rotate with the pressure plate assembly. The release bearing keeps moving forward and exerts pressure on the release levers or fingers causes the force of the pressure plate’s spring to move away from the clutch disc. To engage the clutch, the clutch pedal is released and the release bearing moves away from the pressure plate. This makes the pressure plate’s springs to be forced against the clutch disc, thus engaging the clutch to the flywheel. Once the clutch is fully engaged, the release bearing is normally stationary and does not rotate with the pressure plate.
A mechanical as well as the hydraulic linkage operates the clutch in a manual transmission. A vehicle with a mechanical linkage is usually operated with either a cable or shaft and lever style. The shaft and lever linkage many components and various pivot points, this include a release lever and rod, an equalizer or cross shaft, a pedal to equalizer rod, an “over-center” spring (to return the clutch pedal to the rest position), and the pedal assembly that transfers the movement of the clutch pedal to the throw-out bearings the is an attachment of the master bearing to the clutch pedal by an actuator rod, and the slave cylinder is subsequently connected to the master cylinder by high-pressure tube. The slave cylinder is always linked to a bracket next to the bell housing, so that it can movement of the clutch release fork is direct.
What are the signs of a bad or worn clutch? Some car clutch linkages are self-adjusting, and cannot be adjusted manually, however some of this symptoms in an older car without self-adjustment include :(i) grinding close to the floorboard or the transmission shifting. (ii)If your clutch pedal moves easily, but the transmission does not engage. (iii) Clutch chattering; this is mostly caused by overheated clutch which caused by slipping the clutch because of oil on the clutch disc.